Research is a scientific process. It is called as scientific because the research are variable. It is a systematic search for answers to questions about facts and relationship between facts. The systematic method has an order and follows an acceptable procedure for conducting research in every field and more so in the field of nursing is demand of the day.
Definition of Research
1. “The development of knowledge about health and the promotion of health over the full size span, care of persons with health problems and disabilities and nursing research enhance the ability of individuals to response effectively to actual or potential health problems.”
- American Nurses Association, 1982
2. “Nursing research is concerned with systematic study and assessment of NSG problems or phenomena finding ways to improve NSG practice and patient cares through creative studies, initiating and evaluating change and taking actions to make new knowledge useful in nursing.”
3. “Scientific Process that validates and refers existing knowledge and generate new knowledge that directly and indirectly influence nursing practice.”
4. “Nursing research in a process in which the researcher scientifically collects data to be used in the clinical administrative or instructional area in order to find solution to nursing problems, evaluates nursing practices, procedures, policies or curriculum assess the needs of patients, students or staff.
- Polet, A. Hungler.
5. “A systematic study of problems in patient care”.
6. “A systematic detailed attempt to dissolver or confirm touch facts that relate to a specific problem to improve the practice and profession of nursing.”
7. “A systematic search for knowledge about issues of importance to nursing.”
- Polit and Hungler.
8. “A study of the problem in practice relating to the effect of nursing.”
- - Henderson.
9. “Nursing Research in the terms used to describe the evidence used to support nursing practice.”
Characteristics of research.:
- Research is always directed towards the assignment of a problem.
- Research is always based on empirical and observational evidence.
- Research involves precise observation and accurate description.
- Research emphasize to the development of theories and principles and generalization.
- Research is characterized by systematic, objectives and logical procedure.
- Research it marked by patients, courage and unhurried activities.
- Research requires that the researcher has full experience of the problem being studied.
- Research is replicable
- Research uses systematic method of problem solving.
- In research the factors which are not under study are controlled.
- Research requires full skill of writing report
The purpose of nursing research.
Nursing research in the systematic inquiry in the phenomena of interest in nursing science, namely the adaptation of individuals and groups to actual or potential health problems, the environment that influence health in humans and the theoretic interventions that affect the consequents of illness and promote health.
Qualitative research of ten conducts a study to examine phenomena about which little is known. In some cases so little is known that the phenomena has yet to be clearly identified or named or has been inadequately defined or conceptualized. The in depth probing nature or qualitative research is well shifted to the task of answering such questions as “what is this phenomena? And what is its name”.
In quantitative research by contrast the researcher begins with phenomenon that has been previously studied or defined sometimes in a qualitative study. Thus in quantitative research, identification typically precedes the inquiry.
2. Description: the main objective of many nursing research studies is the description and elucidation of phenomena relating to the nursing profession. The researcher who conducts a description investigation observes, counts, describe and classifies when Phenomena that nurse researchers have been interested in describing are varied they include topics such as stress and copping in patients, pain management adaptation processes, health beliefs, rehabilitations success and time patterns of temperature reading.
3. Exploration: Exploratory research begins with some phenomenon of interest; but rather than simply observing and describing the phenomenon, exploratory research is aimed at investigating the full nature of the phenomenon, the manner in which it is manifested and the other factors with which it is related. For e.g. a descriptive quantities study of patients preoperative stress might seek to document the degree of stress patients experience before surgery and the percentage of patients who actually experience it. An exploratory study might ask the following. what factors are related to a patients stress level? Is a patient’s stress related to behavior of the nursing staff? Does a patients behavior of change in relation to the level of stress experienced.
4. Explanation :
The goals of explanatory research are to understand the underpinnings of specific natural phenomena and to explain systematic relationship among phenomena. Explanatory research is often linked to theories which represent a method of deriving, organizing and integrating ideas about the manner in which phenomena are interrelated where as descriptive research provides new information and exploratory research promising in sign explanatory research attempts to offer understanding of the underlying causes or full nature of a phenomenon.
5. Prediction and Control:
Without current level of knowledge technology and theoretical progress there are numerous problem that defy absolute comprehension and explanation yet it is frequently possible to make predications and control phenomena’s based on finding from research user in the observe of complete understanding.
Through prediction one can estimate the probability of a specific outcome in a given situation, with predictive knowledge nurses could anticipate the effect that nursing interventions would have a patient and families.
If one can predict the out come of a situation the next step is to control or manipulate the situation to produce the described outcome.
Scope of research
- It promotes scientific and legal thinking
- Operational it is involved in solving operational problems e.g.
- It is also used as an aim to economic policy and gained its importance in government and has gained its importance in government and business
- It facilitates the decision of policy making
- It studies the economic and social structure of nation and gives a detailed account of the change taking place in society
- It helps in predicting future development
- It studies the motivation underlying the consumer behavior
- It helps social scientists in studying social relationship and seeking answers for various social problems
- It helps in the attainment of high position in social structure
- It helps in development of new ideas and insight and for analysis, for generation of new advancement of a profession
- It is a measure or means of attaing live hood for professionals
Types of Research Studies:
1. Fundamental or Basic Research: Fundamental research here means research of a scientific nature which has practically no connection. It is absolutely remote in nature as for as social science research is concerned. Fundamental or basic research is primarily intended to find out certain basic principles viz; John Robinson’s imperfect competition theory in economics, Maslow’s, Hierarchy of needs theory in motivation.
2. Applied Research: Applied research already stated in the application of aavailable scientific methods in social science research which helps to contradict alter or modify any existing theory or theories and help to formulate policy, applied research, they more concerned with actual life. It also suggests remedial measure to alleviate social problem. E.g. of applied research may be
a) John Horseman’s Descriptions without punishment theory.
b) Clayton Alderfer’s: existence relatedness and growth theory which contraindicated Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory.
3. Descriptive research: Descriptive research is usually a fact finding approach generalizing across – section study of the present situation for e.g. a study on problems of industrial relation in India with an inter – displinary approach it is classified under conclusive research.
4. Historical Research: Resistor is the research is the research on past social forces which have shaped the present for e.g. To study the present state of Indian labor we may research on the part historical forces.
5. Formulations or exploratory research: Formulation or exploratory research helps us investigate any problem with suitable hypothesis. This research on social science in particularly important for clarification of any concept and throwing new light for further research an principle of developing hypothesis and its testing with statistical tools.
6. Ex post facto Research: Ex post facto research is an empirical enquiry for situation that have already occurred for e.g., market failure for any company’s product if studied or researched later may be categorized as export facto research. Apart from this declaration or slow rate of growth in national income when studied to formulate the future polices on this account is classified an ex-port facto research
7. Experimental research; Although experimental research in primarily possible in areas of physical science with the help of hypothesis, may also be carried out in social science if such research enable us to quantity the findings to apply the statistical and mathematical tools and to measure the results thus qualified. It is also classified under conclusive research.
8. Case study approach: Study approach to social science research is particularly initiated at the micro level e.g. study of a particular industrial unit or units study some banking limits etc, may be categorized as a case – study. This type of study is intensive in nature and data complication requires exhaustive study of the units with at most sincerity.
I. Type of Quantitative Research.
1. Descriptive Research
2. Correlation Research
3. Quasi – experiment Research.
4. Experimental Research.
II. Types of Qualitative Research
1. Phenomenological Research
2. Grounded Theory Research
3. Ethnographical Research
4. Historical Research.
III. Outcome Research:
Types of Quantities Research:
Descriptive Research is the exploration and description of Phenomena in real life situation it provides an accurate amount of characteristics of Particular individual’s situation or groups, through descriptive studies, researcher discover new meaning describe what exists, determines the frequency with which something occurs and categorize. The outcome of descriptive research includes the description of concepts, identification of relationships and development of hypothesis that provide a basis for future quantities research.
Correlation, research involves the systematic investigation of relationship between or among variables. To do this the researcher measures the selected variables. To do this, the researcher measures the selected variable in a sample and then use correlation statistics to determine the relationships among the variable using correlation analysis, the researcher is able to determine the degree or strength and type (positive or negative) of a relationship between two variables. The strength of a relationship varies ranging from – 1 (perfect -ve correlation) to +ve (perfect +ve correlation) with “O” indication no relationships.
Quasi – Experimental Research:
The purpose of quasi experimental research is to examine casual relationship or to determine the affect of one variable an another. It involves implementing a treatment and examining the effect of this treatment using selected methods of measure quasi experimental studies differ from experimental studies by the level of control achieved by researchers.
Experimental research is and objective systematic highly controlled investigation for the purpose of predicting and controlling phenomena in nursing practice. In an experimental study, causality between the independent and the dependent variables is examine under highly controlled conditions experimental research is considered the most powerful quantitative method because of the rigorous control of variables. The three main characteristics of experimental studies are
1. Controlled manipulation of at least one treatment variable (Independent variable).
2. Exposure of some of the subjects to the treatment (experimental group) and no exposure of the remaining subjects control group and
3. Random assignment of subjects to either the control or experimental group in an experimental studies in strengthened by random selection of subjects and the conduct of the study in a lab or research facility.
1. Phenomenological Research:
Phenomenology is both a philosophy and a research method. The philosophical position taken by phenomenological researchers are very different from the positions that are common in nursing culture and research tradition.
2. Grounded theory Research:
Grounded theory research is an inductive technique that emerged from the discipline of sociology, the term grounded means that the theory that developed from the research has its soon in the data from which it was derived.
3) Ethnographic Research:
Ethnographic research was developed by anthropologist as a mechanism for studying culture. The world ethnography means “portrait of people” many nurses involved in this type of research obtained their doctoral preparation in anthropology and have used anthropological technique to examine cultural issues of interest in nursing.
4) Historical Research:
Historical research examines events of the part many histories believes that the greatest values of historical knowledge is increased self – understanding in addition historical acknowledge provides nurses with an increased understanding of their profession.
Research is a scientific process, it is systematic method has an order and follows an acceptable procedure for conducting research in every field and more so in the field of nursing is demand of the day.
Nursing Research is a systematic study of the problems of patient care.
The Research purpose in nursing can be further described in several ways in such as identification.
Description, exploration, explanation, prediction and control.
The main characteristics of Research is always directed towards the solution of a problem and based on empirical and observational evidence.
Introducing to Nursing Research is concerned with types with a systematic study of problems related problem. Research is always directed towards the observational evidence. In NSG Research it maintains identified and define the elements composing the problem and inters relationship among elements. Analysis and interpretation and Synthesis of the collected facts along with previously known fact and theories are judged to be relevant to the problems observation and evaluation of the out comes of action are followed as warranted by modification of course of action.
1. B.T., Basavantappa, Nursing Research – Jaypee Medical Publication, 1995 Page No. 4-24.
2. Nancy Burns, Understanding Nursing Research, Founders 2007 Page No. 18-20.
3. Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya, Research Methodology, Excel Books 2nd Edt, 2006 page 27-30.
4. Kols L. Lokesh “Methodology of Educational Research” 3rd edn 1996, Vikas Publishing house Pvt. Ltd., Pg 08-101.
5. Benise, F. Plit, Charyl Tatano Beck “Nursing Research, Principles and methods, 7th edn. Tippinwts. Publisher Pg 8-20.
6. T.K, Indrane “Research Methodology for Nurses” 2005, Jaypee brother Publishers Page No. 1-4.
7. R.T. Bhaskara Rao “Research Methdology” 2nd edn. 2005 Parals Medical Publciation Pg NO. 8-6.
1. http://wap.google.com/gwt/nsy=http/3A/2F/fwww39homepage, villanogg, edu7.2frosemary.schilters.www.wikipedia.com